As the debate rages on regarding strike pattern, shoes, and one universally best form to run, how about we first establish consensus regarding common denominators related to running. This past weekend I was fortunate enough to have my uncle, who is visiting Seattle and also happens to be a professional photographer, capture some footage of me running to highlight several key aspects of the running gait that we have to prepare injured runners for as we attempt to return them to daily training and beyond. Ive included three separate pictures to capture three distinct portions of the gait cycle which are as follows and listed from left to right: terminal stance, float phase, and midstance. As you look at these images, it's important to keep in mind that I'm running on level ground at 4:30 pace in the Brooks Launch (10mm heel to toe differential). Below, I've listed some key characteristics and takeaways related to the above images. I've also include footage from a few clips of me running on a treadmill to give you a more thorough perspective of the running gait to compliment the above images.
1. The runner has to progress through the forefoot and ideally the first ray which demands mobility at the first MTP.
2. The knee does not fully extend on the stance leg in the vast majority of cases.
3. Some hip extension is necessary on the stance leg though not nearly as much as some folks lead you to believe.
3. The trunk is erect and the head is held steady.
4. There is a good deal of shoulder extension that occurs on the contralateral side relative to the stance leg.
5. The pelvis and shoulders remain relatively square.
6. A moderate amount of hip flexion is necessary though definitely less than 90 degrees.
1. The brachium (upper arm) never breaks the plane of the torso despite sometimes giving the appearance of doing so.
2. There is a distinct float phase that is inherent to the running gait.
3. A small amount of torso rotation occurs during the running gait.
4. The tibia of the left or more anterior lower extremity is positioned relatively vertical and the foot is positioned close to level with the ground.
5. Although it appears as if I may be overstriding, the foot winds up landing almost underneath my body by the time it contacts the ground (easier to see in the video below).
6. The trunk is erect and the held is held steady.
1. The quadriceps act eccentrically during the stance phase.
2. The leg must progress over the foot thus demanding ankle dorsiflexion
3. There is minimal hip ADDuction that occurs during the stance phase.
4. There is minimal ipsilateral trunk lean towards the stance leg during this phase.
5. The trunk is erect and the head is held steady.
6. The knee of the non-stance leg flexes to ~120 degrees though in most recreational runners this value is ~90 degrees while with world class sprinters it can reach 135+
Based on this information, I thought it would be helpful to list my prerequisites to safely return injured runners to regular training and beyond.
1. No use of NSAIDs or narcotics
2. No signs/Sx of inflammation
3. Ability to fully wt bear through the affected region(s)
4. Adequate toe dexterity (flex-ext of the great toe and lesser toes, splaying, and adduction
5. Ability to balance in a wobble free manner for >30s such that there is no reliance on an arm nor trunk strategy.
6. @ least 35+ degrees of isolated extensions of the 1st MTP extension in a WB position at terminal stance.
7. Ability to progress the leg over the foot (~22 DF)
8. Tolerance to open and closed chain contractions of the lower extremities
9. Good frontal plane stability esp @ hip & trunk
10. Tolerance of fitness walking (3.5mph) in a defect free shoe
11. Tolerance of a progressive walk-run routine
12. Ability to hop in multiple directions on each leg
I recently had the chance to do a Q&A session with Greg Lehman, who is a physical therapist and chiropractor based in Toronto, CA. Greg's voracious reading of the medical and performance literature coupled with his research background and time in Stuart McGill's lab has positioned him as one of the foremost authorities on a variety of topics, which include but are not limited to the following: 1) clinical application of pain science, biomechanics, tendon rehab, running, core strengthening, and clinical decision making. Greg also happens to be one of the most generous clinicians out there as he's provided the online community with a tremendous amount of free resources. To learn more about Greg please visit his website. Without further ado, Greg Lehman folks.
E-BOOK for RUNNERS
MIKE REINOLD & ERIC CRESSEY'S FUNCTIONAL STABILITY PART 4